November 19 , 2017. EN. Planchon Peteroa , Ticsani , Dukono , Fuego , Phlegraean Fields .
November 19 , 2017.
Planchon Peteroa , Chile :
Volcanic Complex of Planchôn – Peteroa:
In the first fortnight, twenty-two events related to fracturing processes of rigid material called volcano-tectonics (VT) were recorded, with a local maximum magnitude (ML) of 3.5. The locations of the earthquakes were concentrated mainly under the volcanic building at depths between 3.5 and 7 km. The strongest earthquake was located 5.3 km east of the main crater at a depth of 7.5 km.
With respect to fluid dynamics events, one thousand seventy-three long-period (LP) events with a reduced maximum displacement (DRC) value of 3.9 cm2 have been classified, which is considered low, while the dominant frequencies were maintained between 1.0 and 1.7 Hz mainly.
During the day of Tuesday, November 14 an episode of spasmodic tremor was recorded, lasting approximately 30 minutes, which reached a small displacement value (DRC) of 3.9 cm2, (REAV_20171114_1630_Peteroa). It is pointed out that due to cloudiness, the top of the volcanic complex could not be observed at the time of recording the tremor episode.
The webcam images showed the presence of small outgassing of low whitish energy, whose heights did not exceed 50 m above the active craters of the complex.
From the data obtained by two (2) GNSS stations, which measure the deformation in the volcanic complex, no significant variation was observed. On the other hand, the data provided by one (1) electronic inclinometer, installed in the complex, show no change related to the internal activity of the volcano.
No anomalies have been reported in sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions to the atmosphere in the volcanic complex sector, according to data obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Sulfur Dioxide Group (S02). http: //so2.gsfc.nasa .gov /) and the National Service for the Environment, Data and Satellites (NESDIS) (http://satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov).
No thermal warnings were reported in the volcanic complex area according to data published by the Middle Observation InfraRed of Volcanic Activity (Mirova) on its website (http://www.mirovaweb.it/).
During the evaluated period, the recording of a seismic activity located around the active craters, at shallow levels, remains without showing an emissive activity on the surface. In this scenario, which suggests the existence of a conflict between the magmatic and hydrothermal system, the recorded spasmodic tremor episode acquires a qualitative importance and could indicate the transit of fluids between the two systems, allowing a greater interaction between them, the possibility of imbalance to a state of instability with ash emissions and / or higher energy phreatic activity that could affect the area of active craters. For all this, the area within a radius of 1 km around active craters is considered to be a danger zone and it is recommended to restrict access.
The volcanic alert level is maintained at the Amarillo level : changes in the behavior of volcanic activity.
Source : Sernageomin
Ticsani , Peru :
Seismo – volcanic surveillance:
Seismic activity levels during this period remained within normal parameters. In general, the dominant activity was related to fracture or VT events. This seismicity could also be observed in the form of a swarm (group of earthquakes in a certain period of time).
VTP (Volcano-Tectonic Proximal) earthquakes, related to rock breaks recorded within 6 km of the volcano, showed an increase of 36% compared to the previous period. On average, 14 VTPs were recorded per day. This increase in the number of earthquakes is directly related to the presence of a seismic swarm of 133 events, recorded on the 14th of this month.
VTD earthquakes (distal volcano-tectonic earthquakes) have been observed in small numbers. Their average activity rate was 5 VTDs per day.
Location of events:
Calculation of hypocentral parameters for 23 fracture type earthquakes was performed. As is characteristic in this area, seismicity is superficial. On this occasion, earthquakes up to 14 km deep from the surface were observed. The spatial distribution of these events showed us a small cluster 15 km southeast of Ticsani volcano and some earthquakes near the recent dome of this volcano. Localized earthquakes reached amplitudes not exceeding 3.1 ML (Local Magnitude).
SO2 anomalies: The GSDM-NASA satellite system « EOS Aura » (http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/) recorded low SO2 gas density values during this period.
Thermal anomalies: The MIROVA system (www.mirovaweb.it) did not detect thermal anomalies on the Ticsani volcano (VPR = 0 megawatts).
Seismo – volcanic activity in the Ticsani region maintains low levels. The predominant earthquakes in this region are related to the fracture of rocks in the vicinity of the volcano.
VTP earthquakes showed an increase in their daily occurrence frequency (14 VTP per day). A swarm of proximal fracture type earthquakes was also observed on November 14th. VTD seismicity continues to exhibit low levels of its daily seismicity rate.
Regarding the spatial distribution of fracture earthquakes, we continue to observe a group of earthquakes 15 km southeast of Ticsani and many other proximal earthquakes.
Any changes will be notified in a timely manner.
Source : IGP
Dukono , Indonesia :
Level of activity Level 2 (WASPADA). The Dukono (1229 m above sea level) has a continuous eruption. Since yesterday until this morning the volcano was visually observed clear until the appearance of fog. The wind was blowing slightly eastward. Thanks to the seismographic recording, it was noted 3 Eruptions / Emissions and a constantly recorded Tremor with an amplitude of 0.5 to 8.0 mm (dominant 2 mm). Visually, the thick eruption columns are gray-white in color, the vapor pressure constantly reaches an altitude of 300-500 m above the peak. It has been noted a low roar from the Dukono Post which is 10 km north of the summit.
Recommendations: The communities around G. Dukono and visitors / tourists should not move, climb or approach the Malupang Warirang crater within 2 km.
VOLCANO OBSERVATORY NOTICE FOR AVIATION – VONA.
Issued: November 17 , 2017
Volcano: Dukono (268010)
Current Aviation Colour Code: ORANGE
Previous Aviation Colour Code: orange
Source: Dukono Volcano Observatory
Notice Number: 2017DUK318
Volcano Location: N 01 deg 41 min 35 sec E 127 deg 53 min 38 sec
Area: North Maluku, Indonesia
Summit Elevation: 3933 FT (1229 M)
Volcanic Activity Summary:
Eruption with volcanic ash cloud at 21h14 UTC (06h14 local).
Volcanic Cloud Height:
Best estimate of ash-cloud top is around 4893 FT (1529 M) above sea level, may be higher than what can be observed clearly. Source of height data: ground observer.
Other Volcanic Cloud Information:
Ash cloud moving to East.
Eruption and ash emission is continuing.
Source : VSI / Magma.
Photo : Sylvain Chermette / http://80joursvoyages.com/
Fuego , Guatemala :
Type of activity: Vulcanian
Morphology: Composite stratovolcan
Location: 14 ° 28’54˝ Latitude N; 90 ° 52’54˝ Longitude W.
Weather conditions: Clear
Wind: North West 4 km / h
Precipitation: 0.0 mm.
Persistence of a white fumarole, low, at an approximate height of 4700 square meters (15,420 feet) which is dispersed to the south and southwest. The OBVFGO reports an average of 8 to 12 explosions per hour, with low to moderate characteristics, which creates gray ash columns that reach a height of approximately 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,764 to 15,420 feet) which disperse over 14 km to the South, South West and West. Incandescent pulsations reaching a height of 100-150 meters above the crater, cause weak to moderate avalanches on the contour of the crater. Ash falls are noted in communities such as: Morelia, Santa Sofia, San Andres Osuna, La Rochela, Ceylon, Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché I and II, among others.
Source : Insivumeh
Phlegraean Fields , Italy :
Looking Inside an Active Italian Volcano .
16 NOVEMBER 2017. Italy’s Solfatara crater lies in the Phlegraean Fields caldera, near Mount Vesuvius, the volcano that buried the city of Pompeii in 79 CE. The Phlegraean Fields caldera is located inside the metropolitan area of Naples, and it is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth. This caldera is currently showing significant volcanic unrest, mainly located around the Solfatara volcano. The crater’s boiling, sulfurous mud pools and fumaroles indicate an intense volcanic activity, which many scientists view as a serious potential threat to the roughly 3 million inhabitants of this region.
Scientists have long struggled to track Solfatara’s activity because the interactions between the gases in magma, water, and steam within volcanoes are still poorly understood. Now, however, a 3-D map of the complex water and gas-bearing tunnels and chambers within the caldera could aid that effort.
Gresse et al. used electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), a technique commonly used to study aquifers and other underground structures, to map the structure of Solfatara’s inner cracks and chambers. In ERT, researchers induce an electrical current between multiple electrodes placed on the ground and then collect profiles of the resistance it encounters as it passes through substances such as water, rock, mud, or gas. After doing this repeatedly, they can compile a 3-D picture of what lies below.
This study reveals, for the first time, the structure of a gas-filled reservoir 50 meters below the surface of the Solfatara caldera. It shows that the reservoir is attached to a 10-meter-thick channel that turns into an opening known as the Bocca Grande fumarole, a vent through which foul-smelling volcanic gases escape to the surface. It also reveals the hidden condensate water channels beneath the surface, as well as the precise dimensions of features such as the cryptodome, a body of magma that can make the surface of a volcano bulge without erupting.
Solfatara releases thousands of tons of hot carbon dioxide and water through vents such as the Bocca Grande fumarole every day. As pressure within the volcano builds over time, the ground above often rises and can cut off or change the shape of these internal release valves. Although the Phlegraean Fields caldera hasn’t erupted since 1538 CE, three ground uplift events have occurred since the 1950s, suggesting to some that the next eruption could be coming soon.
PAPER: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/…/10.1…/2017JB014389/abstract 3-D electrical resistivity tomography of the Solfatara crater (Italy): implication for the multiphase flow structure of the shallow hydrothermal system – Marceau Gresse, Jean Vandemeulebrouck, Svetlana Byrdina, Giovanni Chiodini, André Revil, Timothy C. Johnson, Tullio Ricci, Giuseppe Vilardo, Annarita Mangiacapra, Thomas Lebourg, Jacques Grangeon, Pascale Bascou, Laurent Metral.
Source : AGU EOS , Jeannie Curtis.
Photo : Marceau Gresse