October 28 , 2016. EN. Turrialba / Irazu , Klyuchevskoy , Rinjani , Gamalama .
October 28 , 2016.
Turrialba / Irazu , Costa-Rica:
Activity report of the Turrialba volcano eruption
October 27, 2016, updated at 17:00
Eruptions and seismicity:
The Turrialba volcano keeps the eruptive activity he has shown since the end of September 2016. Since October 26 at 17:00 and until October 27, 2016 at 5:00 pm seismographs of the Turrialba volcano experienced a volcanic tremor of variable amplitude. During periods of low amplitude tremor, gas and aerosols (fine solid particles and liquid) emission is recorded , and a strong column that exceeds 500 meters above the summit of the volcano. During periods of greater amplitude of tremor, a column of gas, aerosols and ash reaching and sometimes exceeding 1000 meters above the summit of the volcano is recorded. The amplitude of tremor observed today and associated with ash emissions remained very similar to those recorded during the month of October. However, today, October 27 from 06:30 there was an increase in amplitude, which reached twice the previously saved values. The increase in amplitude was maintained during these episodes of Tremor until 16:30. The direction of the scattering of ashes and gases has been variable over the past 24 hours due to low wind, which dispersed materials in almost all directions.
Scattering of ashes and gases in the environment:
The dispersion of gases, ash and aerosols emitted by the Turrialba during the day was mainly directed towards the Southeast, with a low-speed wind. However, the volcanic material were dispersed in different sectors on a wide area encompassing the Southeast territory, East and Northeast of Turrialba volcano because of the instability of wind according to Meteorological Institute Weather data from IMN national station on the summit of Turrialba and Irazu.
Reports of ash fall and sulfur odor perception:
Few reports have been received about the ash falls, probably because the gases and ashes are scattered to the south and not towards the central valley. The few reports of ash fall perception come from sites like: 1) Carthage: San Ramon de Tres Rios and Santa Cruz de Turrialba; 2) San Jose: Tibás. Sulfur odors have been reported: 1) San Jose Guadalupe.
It is reported that during the early morning hours, 13 earthquakes of VLP type and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the volcano Irazu at 3:13 and 4:55 were generated. The second was felt by the population, with a magnitude of 2.6 degrees on the Richter scale at a depth of 8 km; these events are related directly to the deep fracturing of the rock caused by the passage of magma towards the surface.
New volcano tectonic earthquakes continue to shake the local fault system that are part of the Irazu volcano, the same microseismic were generated before the eruptive process in 1723; during this year, there was a strong earthquake in this region and a few minutes later, the largest known eruption produced by the Irazu.
The last two earthquakes occurred at 5:06 p.m. and 5:34 p.m. local time, the second, stronger, with a magnitude of 3.1 degrees on the Richter scale and at a distance of nearly 500 meters from the main crater.
Source : Ovsicori , R Florès.
Photo : Dr. Mauricio Mora
Klyuchevskoy , Kamchatka :
56.06 N, 160.64 E;
Elevation 15580 ft (4750 m)
Aviation Color Code is ORANGE
Explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 26,240-33,000 ft (8-10 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.
Explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues: there are strong gas-steam activity with emission of different amounts of ash of the summit crater and the cinder cone into Apakhonchich chute, and the effusing of lava flows along the eastern flank of the volcano. According to satellite data by KVERT, a large bright thermal anomaly was observed in the area of the volcano all week; explosions sent ash up to 5-7 km a.s.l. and gas-steam plumes contained ash extended for about 335 km to the east, north, west and northwest from the volcano on 20-21 and 23-27 October.
Source : Kvert
Rinjani , Indonesia :
The management office of Mount Rinjani National Park (TNGR) has said the volcano’s trekking routes will remain closed to visitors until the Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Center (PVMBG) issues further information on volcanic activity in Rinjani’s sub-volcano, Mt. Barujari.
“Rinjani remains closed. We are still waiting for a recommendation from the PVMBG, the Geology Agency and the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry on Mt. Barujari’s status,” TNGR head Agus Budi Santoso said after a meeting at the office of the West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) governor in Mataram on Wednesday.
The TNGR closed two Rinjani trekking routes, namely Senaru-North Lombok and Sembalun-East Lombok, on Sept. 28, one day after the eruption of Mt. Barujari, which is located in the caldera, or crater, of Mt. Rinjani.
The closure was conducted following the PVMBG’s decision to increase Rinjani’s status to waspada (cautious), or alert level 2. At that level, any activity within a 3 kilometer radius from the crater is prohibited.
“Who can guarantee that the volcano will not erupt when they are climbing it? Once the Geology Agency says its condition is quite safe for trekking, we will open it up again,” said Agus.
Source : Jakartapost
Gamalama , Indonesia :
1 to 23 October 2016: 17 deep volcanic earthquakes (VA), 1 shallow volcanic tremor (VB), 68 earthquakes of emission , 43 local tectonic earthquake , 295 distant tectonic earthquakes. Harmonics tremors were recorded 12 times, with the maximum amplitude of 1 to 4 mm.
The eruption of Gamalama usually have a model in which a series of tectonic earthquake is followed by the rise of volcanic earthquakes, as in December 2014 and July 2015. In addition, it also presents a type of eruption that is not preceded by an activity tectonics, as happened on September 8, 2015, with a ‘sudden magmatic pulse « characterized by a relatively low intensity of the eruption and that is not preceded by an increase in earthquakes and volcanic local tectonics, as a common feature of the eruption of December 2014 and July 2015. Apparently, the eruption that took place on August 3, 2016 was included in the second type (magmatic sudden impulse).
The increased number of earthquakes that took place from June 6th 2016.
VA type of earthquake are recorded every day with varying amounts. The largest number occurred on 9 (16 events), 22 (10 events) and 23 (8 events). The VA-type earthquake accumulation would have caused intense fracturing process of rock in the G. Gamalama, and LF seismic events that followed on 20 and 26 July, indicate the fluid supply. The emergence of LF seismicity indicates that the pressure increase under the Gamalama , and the pressure is already close to the surface. Increasing supplying fluid is also marked by the increase of the amplitude of vibration Tremor, which have been detected since mid-July 2016. This has been followed by the eruption on August 3 and August 4 2016.
Based on the visual, instrumental observations and evaluation of the potential danger of eruption of Mount Gamalama to the date of October 23, 2016, the level of activity of G. Gamalama remained at the level II (Waspada).
If there is a change in volcanic activity of the G Gamalama significantly, the activity level can be raised / lowered according to the volcanic activity and the level of threat.
Source : VSI
Photo : Reuters