February 20 , 2016. EN. Planchón-Peteroa , Momotombo , Karangetang , Colima .

Home / blog georges Vitton / February 20 , 2016. EN. Planchón-Peteroa , Momotombo , Karangetang , Colima .

February 20 , 2016. EN. Planchón-Peteroa , Momotombo , Karangetang , Colima .

February 20 , 2016.



Planchón-Peteroa , Chile :

Volcanic Activity Report (RAV) Maule Region

Activity report of the volcanic complex of Planchón-Peteroa (February 1 to 15).
The level of activity of the complex is at: YELLOW; changes in the behavior of volcanic activity
  Time for a probable eruption weeks / months.

Based on the analysis of information obtained from monitoring equipment and surveillance of the volcanic complex , the National Service Geology and Mines (SERNAGEOMIN) through the Volcanological Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS) announces:
During the reporting period, sixteen (16) events related to rock fracturing process (called volcano-tectonic, VT) with a maximum local magnitude (ML) of  M 0,4 were recorded.

Planchon Peteroa

Similarly 3,634 earthquakes were classified, associated with the fluid dynamics inside the volcano (called long period LP) with local magnitude (ML) of less than M 1.1 and reduced displacement values (RDC) below 2,1cm2.
IP camera images showed degassing from the main crater , whitish in color, first suggesting the presence of water vapor. It reached an altitude of about 200 m above the crater.

The images published by the IMO Group (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) Sulfur Dioxide Group (http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (http: // satepsanone.nesdis. noaa.gov) reported no abnormality in the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere in the volcanic complex sector.
Thermal radiation published by MODVOLC (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MODIS on its website (http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/) and Mirova (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) on its website (http: // .mirovaweb.it www /), monitoring systems to indicate important changes in surface temperature, reported no thermal warning reported in the area associated with the volcanic complex.

planchon peteroa

There are no reports of local authorities or communities about anomalies seen in the volcanic area.
Although the recorded events have low energy levels, this increase in the number of events associated with fluid dynamics, present past few weeks, suggests that the system has a volcanic activity that is above the base rate .
In this scenario, there is a possibility of occurrence of small ash emissions, for this, the Planchón-Peteroa volcanic complex remains at volcanic alert level Yellow.

Source : Sernageomin .

Photos : Bigthink, T13 cl.


Momotombo, Nicaragua :

Six explosions within 24 hours.

Momotombo volcano recorded six explosions in the last 24 hours, reported the Nicaraguan Institute of Territorial Studies (INETER). The experts added that there had also been expulsions of gas, ash and lava and urged people living near the volcano to take basic protective measures, such as wearing masks.
Politicians said that the communities of La Concha, Matuzán, Boca Cántaro, Flor de Piedra and Puerto Momotombo were subjected to minor ash fall.
The largest explosion took place at 20:50 on Wednesday, while during the day of Thursday, the activity increased, confirmed the spokesperson of the Communication and Citizenship Rosario Murillo.



« The volcano has emitted many incandescent material, launched in different directions, which fell on the flanks of the volcano,«  the official said, adding that the ash column reached up to 1000 meters above the crater .
In addition, the microseismic activity of the Momotombo remains high, as the report of INETER.

« More explosions with similar characteristics are expected in the hours and days to come, » said Murillo.


Source : nicaraguahoy.info

Photo : AFP


Karangetang , Indonesia :


During the period from 10 to 17 February 2016 the Karangetang appears visually still erupting with incandescent dome at night. The main crater emits a thin smoke white / blue, from a height of about 25-100 m. The lava accumulation in the ravines of the Batuawang and Kahetang is not stable, so that in case of heavy rain, it is likely to produce lahars. The dominant flow of lava happened in Batuawang focuses on distances of 2000 to 2500 m summit, it is necessary to monitor the accumulation of lava debris that are not stabilized and may slip into the ravine of Batuawang eventually covering the path. During the rainy season, people living along the banks of the Batuawang should be alert to the occurrence of lahars, because there are still many unstable material.



Seismicity during the period from 10 to 17 February 2016 showed earthquakes avalanche characteristic of the eruption of Karangetang , shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) and phases of tremor. Many showed an increase, the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) is between 6 and 26 episodes per day. Earthquakes that indicate the cracking of rock (lava dome) increased. If we look at the energy of volcanic earthquakes during the period from February 10 to 17, 2016, there has been no significant improvement. Episodes of Tremor and Tremor spasmodic are still often recorded with the maximum amplitude ranges of 0.25 to 1 mm. The energy of the RSAM data increased on 8 September 2015, and had gradually decreased until November 6, 2015, climbing on 18 December 2015 and 27 December 2015. In January 2016, she had increased 2 times, also in February 2016 or energy RSAM increased influenced by an increase in shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) until 16 February 2016.



Currently, the eruption of G. Karangetang is potentially effusive (lava flows) and present pyroclastic avalanches (incandescent lava). We must look at the explosive eruptions like the one that happened in September 2013, during which at the top has been formed an unstable lava dome, making it easily destructible. Pyroclastic avalanches can occur when the flow of lava that accumulates becomes unstable.


The results of the analysis of data and visual and instrumental evaluation until February 17, 2016 at 18:00 did not show a significant increase / decrease in volcanic activity, therefore it is concluded that the  Karangetang remains at level of activity  : level III (SIAGA).
The level of activity will be reduced / increased again if there is a decrease / increase in volcanic activity and will be adapted to the level of the threat.

Source : VSI ( Translation from Indonesian: Google).

Photos : Swisseduc / Marco Fulle , Iyan Mulyana (2007) .


Colima , Mexico :

After a private overflight conducted Tuesday, the teacherresearcher at the University of Colima Nick Varley, was able to see something he foresaw few days before through Mexico Webcams: a small lava dome growing in the crater of the volcano of Colima.

A week earlier, he no longer saw the night glow in the crater, « something that can not be explained by the emergence of fresh magma« . So to learn about the situation, he and several of his students have paid a flight to the volcano’s crater to observe directly whether he had a new dome or not.
Since July last year, the common behavior of the volcano’s eruptions were explosive, no magma buildup.




The scientist from the University of Colima explains, in a broad sense there are two types of eruptions: effusive and explosive. In the effusive case, magma, passively, is in the form of a viscous liquid, something like toothpaste. This magma reaches the surface slowly forms a dome that can then fill the crater, and under its own weight with the help of gravity, it overflows and slips on the flanks of the volcano.
In explosive eruptions, the most important are the gas. With them, the output is more violent than passive. Magma comes out, but also with ash and rocks (called   « ballistic«  by experts), although with the distance, we can see only ashes.
With this flight, they could see that there is a small dome, about 25 meters in diameter and 10 high, which is still low in a crater about 300 meters in diameter. In addition, they noticed a point of the dome, with the thermal imaging camera, or there are temperatures of 700 degrees Celsius. This measure, if asked directly, he said, would be about 850 degrees.


The hottest area in the crater measured when hovering there a month ago, he said, corresponds to that which has been « invaded » by the new dome. In addition, the current crater, said Nick Varley, is deeper than in previous years. « This means it will take longer to be filled with magma. »
The new dome, has he said, « marks a new episode of the effusion, and it is important to be aware of, because if we increase its growth rate, it could increase the possibility of another collapse, as in July last year, which would create a potentially hazardous situation. « 

A rough estimate has he said, the growth rate of the dome would be 0.02 cubic meters per second. But to get a more exact value, other measures are needed, because the growth of a dome can be up to 10 cubic meters per second.


Source : Ucol.mx

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