January 23, 2016. EN. Egon , Planchón-Peteroa , Reventador , Bromo .
January 23, 2016.
Egon, Indonesia :
Visually, no visible change in the color and height of emissions, but the smoke was observed with increased violence following pressure under solfatare of Egon. The color of the smoke of the solfatares is white and rise to an average height of 25-50 meters above the summit. The gusts generated by the increase in energy supply tends to fluctuate. On January 16, 2016, around Mainstay, about 2.5 km from the top of Mount Egon, SO2 levels were measured with the amount of 12 ppm , with 8 ppm of H2S and 0.6% of CO2 (6000 ppm). The maximum level safe for humans is 2 ppm of SO2, 10 ppm of H2S for a period of 8 hours, and 0.5% or 5000 ppm of CO2. Therefore, the levels of SO2 and CO2 are above safe levels, so there is the potential threat of poisonous gas in a radius of 3 km.
The volcanic seismicity of the Egon is dominated by the earthquake (VA), harmonic tremors, and emission earthquakes. After an increase in activity level on 12 January 2016, the number of seismic events of Egon tended to decrease. However, seismic analysis charts show that, despite the relative decline in the number of earthquakes, the cumulative amount of seismic energy is relatively more important. RSAM graph shows a decrease in activity after three strong periods, on December 18, 2015, December 22, 2015 and January 12, 2016. The recorded presence composed of tremor, low earthquake and high frequency, indicating a flow of fluid magma towards the surface with rock fracturing process.
In general, the type of eruption of Mount Egon is phreatic. This type of eruption can occur if there is an interaction between magma and water beneath the surface (hydrothermal), which leads to changes in the liquid phase passing in vapor, producing changes in the volume, which can push the cover of rock near the surface of the crater. The symptoms currently observed are identical to the symptoms of increased seismic activity before the eruption of Mount Egon on April 15, 2008, an increase of seismicity which lasted a relatively short time. Although for now, it can be established that the eruption of Mount Egon is imminent, the anticipation efforts and disaster mitigation efforts need to be improved.
Based on visual observations, seismicity, RSAM measures and the potential threat of eruption of Mount Egon until the date of 20 January 2016, the level of volcanic activity of Mount Egon remains at LEVEL III (Siaga).
If there is a decrease / increase in volcanic activity changes significantly, the activity level can be lowered / raised in accordance with the level of threat.
Source : VSI
Planchón-Peteroa, Chile :
The National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN) said the yellow alert for volcanic complex Planchón-Peteroa, located in the Maule region.
The measure was adopted as a result of the increase recorded by the systems of volcanic alerts, of the cumulative seismicity in January 2016, exceeding the threshold activity of the volcano.
The SERNAGEOMIN explained that implies the transit of fluids within volcanic conduits, although there is no reports of abnormality on the surface .
« Although the events recorded have low levels of energy, the increase in their occurrence, suggest variations in the level of activity of the volcano. Our experts believe that there is a possibility of appearance of small emissions of ash, so it was ruled the technical changes in the level of volcanic alert level to yellow, said the national director of SERNAGEOMIN Rodrigo Alvarez Seguel.
According to reports from the Volcano Observatory of the southern Andes (OVDAS) belonging to the National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN), based on the analysis of information obtained by observators of the complex and monitoring equipment of Planchon – Peteroa volcano , from Friday, January 15, 2016 was noted an increase in activity, which is manifested by an increasing number of events related to fluid flow in volcanic conduits. During January, there have been 289 earthquakes, mostly low energy. However, there were no marked abnormalities changes on the volcanic complex. While the events above have low energy levels, increasing of their frequency and spectral content suggested changes in the volcano’s base level of activity.
Thus, the SERNAGEOMIN indicates that there is a possibility of appearance of small ash emissions, so we proceed to raising the level of technical volcanic alert to yellow, which corresponds to an active volcano with changes in the behavior of volcanic activity, with a probable eruption within weeks / months.
According to the complementarity of the national civil protection system for volcanic activity, the ONEMI declares yellow alert for the municipalities of Molina, Curico, Romeral and Teno.
Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile’s Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937.
Sources : 24 horas. cl, ONEMI , GVP .
Photos : GVP , Emol , davidfariasbarahona.
Reventador, Ecuador :
SUMMARY OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE VOLCANO
The activity of the volcano remains high. Emissions yesterday afternoon, were observed with low ash content and a shift to the northwest at an altitude of 800 meters above the crater.
At night, small emissions up to 150 m above the summit of the volcano were observed, such as a glow on the western flank to about 1200m below the summit.
Technical and related observations:
11:00 (TL) yesterday at 11:00 am (TL) today, it was recorded 65 events long period (LP), 11 episodes of tremor emission (TE), 13 episode of harmonic tremor (TA) and 42 explosions (EXP).
Observations of emissions and ash:
Yesterday afternoon, several emissions of gases and water vapor were observed, with low ash charging westwards and maximum height of 800 m above the crater. At night, small emissions are presented with heights up to 150 m above the summit, and a glow on the western flank, up to 1200m below the summit.
Rains and lahars:
It should be noted of rain in the afternoon yesterday, which did not generate lahars.
This report on a daily basis will be published at 12:00 (TL). In the case of an increase or change in the behavior of the volcano, it will be immediately issued a special report.
Source : igepn.
Photo : Jeff Cundith
Bromo , Indonesia :
Following news of the eruption of the Bromo, with our special correspondent Sylvain Chermette (80 jours voyage), which is kind enough to send us and the magazine LAVE, theses informations:
The volcano remains active. Seismographs show a continuous activity with very regular seismic peaks. A rather clear plume escapes from the volcano constantly with varying intensity. Passages much loaded in ashes are also observed several times daily.
The sandy sea remains closed by the volcano observatory, but the use of the track that joins the two villages on either side seems tolerated by the authorities for the villagers. On January 22, 2016 was a « sacred day » and saw a strong influx of people who went to place offerings to the temples at the foot of the volcano. Some people even cleared the stairs and are mounted on the lip of the crater to give their offerings to the volcano !!! According to the observatory, park authorities have given permission to go to the volcano despite the recommendations of the scientific and officially closed! The cultural side sometimes overtakes the Scientific …
January 21 evening, there was a big increase in activity with a very large and very full panache and large ash fallout for almost two hours. Also in recent days, screenings have increased several times over the lip and landed on the slopes of the crater. There are, however, not really a risk of splashing on the sea of sand. However, with the rains there is a lot of raw or small lahars that make it hostile terrain!
Sources : Sylvain Chermette ( 80 jours voyage ) , C Grandpey ( Lave)