January 03, 2016. EN. Etna , Bromo , Copahue .
January 03, 2016.
Etna , Sicily :
After the intense eruptive activity during the first ten days of December 2015 at the Voragine, Bocca Nuova and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), for a few days the main focus of the activity shifted to the Northeast Crater (NEC). During the night of 9-10 December, there were several episodes of modest Strombolian activity from the latter crater, and a few incandescent bombs fell onto the outer flank of its cone; this activity also generated abundant ash emissions. The ash emissions from the NEC gradually diiminished over the next few days. On the late afternoon of 13 December, a series of ash emissions started from the NSEC, which ended a few hours later; finally, the Voragine produced two brief ash emissions on 18 December. From the afternoon of 18 December until the morning of 28 December, no eruptive activity occurred at Etna.
A new series of ash emissions started at 10:00 UTC (=local time -1) on 28 December from the eruptive vent located high on the eastern flank of the NSEC cone (see image at left, recorded by the visual surveillance camera on the Montagnola, EMOV). These emissions continued intermittently until the afternoon and then ceased, but during the following days, very minor, and sporadic, explosive activity continued at the same vent on the east flank of the NSEC cone.
Source : INGV.
Photos : INGV, Turi Caggegi ( 12/2015 ).
Bromo, Indonesia :
The management of Notohadinegoro Airport in Jember District, East Java Province, has reopened the airport on Friday following its closure due to volcanic ash spewed by the erupting Mount Bromo.
« Today, Garuda Indonesia is resuming to and fro flights on the Surabaya-Jember route at the Notohadinegoro Airport, which was closed for a day due to the volcanic ash from Mount Bromo, » Edi Purnomo, an airport’s spokesman, stated.
Volcanic ash from the erupting Mount Bromo forced the closure of Notohadinegoro Airport from 7:30 a.m. local time on Thursday until 7:30 a.m. local time on Friday.
Garuda Indonesia’s flight serving the Jember-Surabaya route and Susi Air serving the Jember-Sumenep route were cancelled following the eruption of the volcano.
The airport is not directly affected by the volcanic ash, but the flight route to and from Jember Airport is affected by it.
Earlier this year, Jember Airport was closed several times due to the eruptions of Mount Raung located in Banyuwangi and Mount Barujari in West Nusa Tenggara.
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) had earlier revealed that Mount Bromo’s volcanic activity remained high, and the eruption continued until mid-December 2015.
On December 12, the volcano remained seismically active though Head of the Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Agency’s (PVMBG’s) monitoring post Ahmad Subhan stated that the status was still at Alert III.
« The volcanic activity of the 2,329-meter-high mountain is still high, and tremors have been felt with increasing intensity, » he stated at the post at Ngadisari village, Sukapura, Probolinggo.
Based on satellite and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 December ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-205 km N, NNE, NE, E, and SE.
Source : Tempo . com , GVP.
Copahue , Chile :
Copahue volcano (December 16 to 31).
The level of activity of the volcano is at:
LEVEL YELLOW: changes in the behavior of volcanic activity
Time for a probable eruption:
Weeks / months.
Based on the analysis of information collected by monitoring equipment and surveillance of the volcano , the the National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN) – Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), announces:
–During this period 399 (399) seismic events were recorded, of which 345 (345) were classified as volcano-tectonic (VT) associated with rigid material fracturing processes.
Similarly, fifty-four events (54) were recorded, associated with fluid dynamics inside the volcano, including forty-one (41) were identified as earthquakes long period (LP) and thirteen (13) events as very long period (VLP).
As for the VT type of seismicity, the local magnitude (ML) was less than M 3.1 and location of epicenters have a wide distribution. The highest energy event was located on the northeast flank (NE), about 14km from El Agrio crater less than 1 km deep.
In connection with the LP events were recorded reduced displacements l (RDC) less than 2cm2. Seismicity VLP presented reduced displacements values (DRC) up to 73cm2, mostly located around the crater with epicentral distances of less than 3.5 km.
We note the emergence of two seismic swarms, the first on December 16 with 39 recorded events, local magnitude (ML) Maximum 3.1 (Special Report Volcánica REGIÓN Biobio Activity 16 December 2015 17:45 HL) and the second on 17 with a record of 60 events in eight hours (0:00 -07: 44), the largest calculated with a local magnitude (ML) of 3.1. Both episodes were located about 13 km north-east (NE) of the current crater.
The tremor remained in DRC oscillating values generally less than 3cm2, with an average of 1,5cm2 considered low for this volcano, the dominant frequencies between 1.0 to 4.5 Hz.
-The IP cameras installed near the volcano showed the presence of constant ash emissions from the active crater (El Agrio), accompanied by a previous incandescent explosions. These emissions are characterized most of the time by a grayish color showing the presence of the particulate material.
Finally, on 27, was observed an incandescent probably related to a strombolian activity.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) recorded on the volcano Copahue by DOAS equipment (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry) Twins Station, located 5 km to the east–northeast (ENE) of the active crater, exhibit monthly average value of 890 ± 139 ton / day and a maximum of 3084 ton / day, measured on December 23.
The average flow is at normal levels for this volcano.
The observed increases in the second half of the month are associated with surface activity observed during this period.
– Images published by the IMO Group (ozone monitoring instrument) Sulfur Dioxyd Group (http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information (http: // IMO satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov group) have introduced significant changes in the area near the volcano for SO2 emissions in the atmosphere.
Increases were observed in emissions of SO2, on 5 and 19 December with a maximum weight of 269 tons. of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere.
– Thermal radiation released by MODVOLC (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MODIS on its website (http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/) and Mirova (Middle InfraRed Observation of volcanic activity) on its website (http : // www.mirovaweb.it/), monitoring systems to indicate significant changes in surface temperature, recorded thermal alerts associated with volcanic edifice. Thermal anomalies were observed from 20 to 28 December, with maximum radiation power value (VRP) of 21 MW on December 27, considered an intermediate level.
According to the above described monitoring indicators, the result of the related activities is that the supply by short pulses , of a magmatic body of small volume at the volcanic structure, in interaction with the hydrothermal system area , continues, without unbalancing the system, keeping it in a so-called « meta-stable » balance. Therefore, restrict access to the proximal zone within a radius of 1.5 kilometers around the crater El Agrio is recommended and therefore maintains the level of technical alert
to LEVEL YELLOW.
Source : Sernageomin/Ovdas.
Photos : Guillermo de Cesco, Lanacion