December 13, 2015. EN. Bromo , White Island , Masaya .
December 13, 2015.
Bromo, Indonesia :
The tremor activity of Mount Bromo in East Java is still high but the status remains at Alert IIIsaid on Saturday the head of the monitoring station of the volcanology agency, geology and disaster mitigation (PVMBG), Subhan Ahmad.
« The volcanic activity of the volcano 2329 meters high is still high and the tremors are fluctuating with a growing trend,« he said in the post of village Ngadisari, Sukapura, Probolinggo.
On December 12, from 6:00 to 12:00 hours, the tremor was recorded with a maximum amplitude between 3 and 22 millimeters but with a dominant amplitude to 5 millimeters.
« Visually the mountain can be seen clearly with clouds. The weather is nice with temperatures between 15 and 22 degrees Celsius and a breeze blowing gently, « he has said.
The smoke emissions of the crater were noted to black gray color with a maximum thickness and strong pressure pushing up the column between 200 meters and 400 meters in South West direction.
Visually, a medium-intensity rain, with a rate of 4 millimeters of rainfall was also observed on the mountain, but the state of danger of the volcano remains at alert level.
« The spread of volcanic ash is determined by the direction and wind speed. In the last six hours, he went to the West and the South West towards the regions of Pasuruan and Malang, « he has said.
Based on the recommendations of PVMBG, an area with a radius of 2.5 kilometers around the crater was closed for tourists as well as the activities of the villagers.
« I appeal to villagers and tourists not to carry out activities within 2.5 km around the crater because the thick mountain sulfur cloud could cause respiratory problems and sudden small explosions from the crater can happen « he has said.
Tourism activity on Mount Bromo has been closed since December 4, until further notice.
« We continue to coordinate with the PVMBG, following the activity of Mount Bromo and due to the high alert level III, we closed the tourist area of Bromo for any type of activity, » he said .
Source : Antaranews .
Photos : Øystein Lund Andersen
White Island, New Zealand :
Recent routine monitoring of White Island (Whakaari) indicates minor volcanic unrest continues. In October GNS scientists reported an increase in the amount of volcanic gas been emitted and the presence of volcanic tremor. This week we have completed soil gas and leveling surveys and a gas flight. The results of these surveys and other continuous monitoring confirms minor volcanic unrest continues at White Island.
GNS volcanologists who visited the Island this week measured minor amounts of ground deformation, ranging from +20 mm to -12 mm (over the last 3 months) and a small increase in the CO2 soil gas flux from 660-750 grams per square metre per day also in the last 3 months. There has been a small increase in the temperature of the hottest fumarole (174 to 177 ºC) in the last 6 weeks and the lake temperature (54-56 ºC). The water level of the Crater Lake has stabilised with no change noted on this week’s visit or by the regular measurements in the last 3-4 weeks. The SO2 gas output as measured by the DOAS SO2 gas spectrometers, has ranged between 250 to 680 tonnes per day of gas during the last month.
The levels of volcanic tremor continue to vary but do show a consistent rise over the last 2 months. They remain below those observed in 2012 when unrest was stronger and small eruptions occurred. The airborne gas measurements show a increase in CO2 output since the 18 November flight (2000-2200 t/day), while SO2 (400-340 t/day) and H2S (26-15 t/day) have declined.
The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 1 (minor volcanic unrest). The changes we are seeing presently are consistent with minor volcanic unrest. Activity may continue to increase or die away. Typical volcanic unrest hazards like hot ground and gas remain. A range of activity can occur under these conditions with little or no useful warning.
Volcano information: Brad Scott
Source : Geonet
Photos : Marine Biology Lab , newzealandnz.co.nz/ Danny De Heck ( 2014)
Masaya , Nicaragua :
The formation of a lava lake in the crater of the Masaya volcano Santiago was obstructed and it is possible to perceive a sound like waves by the movement of volcanic fluids.
According to Rosario Murillo, spokesman of the government, « there is an incandescence, small flames accompanied by sound wave, suggesting that there is a lot of movement of volcanic fluids, magma and gas near the area « . The experts of the Nicaraguan Institute of Territorial Studies (INETER) and the international experts who are in the country -Following the eruptive activity of the volcano Momotombo- will conduct field assessments and measure the gas.
The geologist Eduardo Mayorga explained that lava lake formation is a normal activity in a volcanic environment.
Mayorga said that « perhaps there may be projections of magma fragments on the surface of the crater floor of Masaya because the crater has a flat bottom, and on the bottom a intercrateric cavity which is a smaller hole where and the gas may optionally be lava fragment ejected outside and which fall within the crater « .
Murillo said that the formation of the lava lake is similar to what happened in 1999. Although last eruptive activity of the crater Santiago took place April 23, 2001, which generated a small explosion while national tourists and foreigners were on the point of view of the crater.
In the case of products of gas emissions Mayorga says they are moved to the side, to El Crucero and La Concepción, but in case of changes in wind direction, the column can fall on Piedra Quemada.
Mayorga said that on December 9, there was an earthquake measured at 3 degrees on the Richter scale and only 0.3 km deep in the area of Masaya / Nindirí / Ticuantepe, as recorded on monitors of INETER.
Source : La Prensa .
Photo : Exploration Points , Viva Nicaragua.