December 14 , 2016. EN. Popocatepetl , Nevado Del Ruiz , Bárðarbunga , Cayambe .

Home / Bárðarbunga / December 14 , 2016. EN. Popocatepetl , Nevado Del Ruiz , Bárðarbunga , Cayambe .

December 14 , 2016. EN. Popocatepetl , Nevado Del Ruiz , Bárðarbunga , Cayambe .

December 14 , 2016.


Popocatepetl , Mexico :

Flyby over Popocatepetl Volcano on 12 December, 2016
The volcanic alert semaphore of the Popocatepetl volcano remains in Amarillo Phase 2

On December 12 was held with the support of the federal police, one of the Popocatepetl volcano reconnaissance overflights. He had favorable weather conditions to make relevant comments. From observations made during this flight, it was observed that the dome 71, which began to be set up on 29 and 30 November, almost completely filled the inner crater, reaching a diameter of 280 m and a thickness of at least 50 m.



The depth of the inner crater floor relative to the main crater was reduced to approximately 15-20 m. The volume of the dome was estimated at about 3 million cubic meters. It is likely that in the coming days or weeks, this dome will be destroyed by one or more explosions similar to those presented in February and March 2015, so that CENAPRED exhorts not to approach the volcano and especially the crater.


In the last 24 hours, through the seismic records of the Popocatepetl volcano monitoring system, 66 exhalations of low intensity accompanied by steam and gas, as well as two small explosions  today at 1h28 and 4h33 were recorded . In addition, a volcano – tectonic event recorded yesterday at 19:47, with a magnitude of M = 1.5 was identified.

At the time of this report, there is no visibility on the volcano and no significant events are observed.

The other monitoring parameters remain unchanged.

Source : Cenapred , Segob


Nevado Del Ruiz , Colombia :

Weekly activity bulletin of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz, from 6 December to 12 December, 2016

The level of activity continues at the level of activity level yellow or (III): changes in the behavior of volcanic activity.

As regards the monitoring of the activity of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz, the Colombian Geological Survey reports that:

During the past week, various monitoring parameters have shown that the volcano Nevado del Ruiz remains unstable. Seismic activity related to rock fracturing under the volcano showed a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic energy released compared to the previous week. This seismicity was located mainly in the southwest, north and northeastern seismogenic sources, and to a lesser extent in the south-eastern sector of the volcano, and in the Arenas crater and its surroundings. The depths of the earthquakes were between 1.0 and 6.9 km. The maximum magnitude recorded during the week was 1.1 ML (local magnitude), which corresponds to an earthquake recorded on 09 December at 09:01 (local time), 6.5 km deep, located 9.7 km to the northwest of the Arenas crater.



Seismicity related to the dynamics of the fluids in the conduits of the volcanic structure was characterized by the appearance of earthquakes long-period (LP) and very long period (VLP) with different energy levels, pulses of Tremors and multiple earthquakes of  fluids. This type of seismicity was mainly located in the Arenas crater and the southeast sector of the volcano. Some of these seismic signals have been associated with emissions of gases and ash into the atmosphere, as confirmed dy images captured by the cameras installed in the volcano region and reports from officials of the Los Nevados Natural National Park (Pnnn). The recording of new seismic signals of this type with higher energy levels which may be associated with emissions of gas and ash is not excluded. It is important to remember that ash processes can occur over several days and sometimes several times a day without involving an individual report for each episode.

Volcanic deformation, measured from electronic inclinometers, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and satellite images to determine changes in inclination, position and shape of the volcano, continues to record in the last few months, inflation and intermittent inflation / deflation impulses, possibly linked to gas and ash emissions.

The volcano continues to emit significant amounts of water vapor and gases, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), as evidenced by the values obtained by the SCANDOAS stations installed in the volcanic zone and on the satellite image. In the tracking information provided by the Mirova portal a thermal anomaly was identified, of low energy, near the Arenas crater, which was recorded on December 7, with a value of 4.0 Mw.

The column of gas, steam and ash from time to time reached a maximum height of 2000 m above the volcano on 09 December. The direction of dispersal of the column was in line with the dominant wind regime in the area, which fluctuated between the northwest and southwest during the week.

The volcano Nevado del Ruiz continues to activity level Amarillo.

Source : Ingeominas

Photos : Archives


Bárðarbunga , Iceland  :

Bárðarbunga Trembles

13 DECEMBER 2016. Three earthquakes in excess of magnitude 3 measured 4-6 km (2.5–3.7 miles) northeast of Bárðarbunga volcano, under Vatnajökull glacier, yesterday morning, according to the Icelandic Met Office.

Bárðarbunga volcano under Vatnajökull glacier.

The largest one was of magnitude 4.2, the others measured 3.9 and 3.8. They all hit between 4 am and 4:30 am.

A tremor of magnitude 2.3 followed this morning at 9:49 in the same area. You can view a map of daily seismic activity at


Photo : Páll Stefánsson.


Cayambe , Ecuador :

Seismic activity persists:

The Cayambe volcano continues with an abnormal seismic activity characterized by volcano-tectonic (fracture) and long-term (fluid motion) earthquakes, located between 2 and 8 km below the summit. On December 8, an earthquake long period of magnitude of more than M = 3, 7 km downstream from the summit, was recorded. In addition, a very slight deformation of the volcano is detected by the instruments. Mountaineers who climbed to the top reported an increase in sulfur odors and the presence of new cracks in the volcano’s glacier.


In recent weeks, seismic activity has remained above the normal rate / power of events for this volcano. In the last week an average of 68 events / day, mainly volcano-tectonic (fracture type) and some events with long period (movement of fluids) were recorded. On 12/08/2016 at 20:42 (local time) an earthquake of magnitude M = 3, located at a depth of 7 km below the summit was recorded. In FIG. 1, the agitation of the volcano , period from June 2016 to the current period , is recorded. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the magnitude of events observed, including 5 events M≥3 in the last 5 weeks. The earthquakes are located below the volcano (Figure 3) at a depth of between 2 and 8 km below the summit.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 1: Cumulative number of events on the Cayambe volcano since January 2016 (blue line). The orange line corresponds to the typical trend preceding the swarm of June 2016. The gray line corresponds to the same tendency after June and before September 2016.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 2: Extent of events over the last two months. The last event of magnitude M≥3 took place on December 8, 2016 at 8:42 pm (local time).

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 3: Location of earthquakes under the Cayambe volcano. In gray: period from 01/10/2016 to 28/11/2016; In purple: period from 28/11/2006 to 12/12/2016.


The data processing of the Cayambe Militar GPS station (CYMI) in recent weeks shows no significant change. However, when comparing these results with the Ibarra station(IBEC) and the Salve Faccha station (SALF)   (Figure 2), a difference is observed in the North component (N) and the vertical component (U)  About 5 mm. Acceleration is observed in the movement.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 4: The time series of the GPS station « CYMI » with respect to the station « IBEC » and the station « SALF ». A slight difference (5 mm) is observed in the North component (N) and the component (U).

Data processing of the Cayambe Militar inclinometer station (CYMI) in recent weeks shows no significant change. There is a slight deviation from trend 2015 and 2016 (Figure 3), but may be due to factors beyond the volcano (ie climatic). In addition, these modifications do not exceed 10 micro-radians.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 5: Deformation (black) and temperature (red) data recorded using the station of the Cayambe Militar (Caym) inclinometer.

Direct Observations:

In recent weeks, it has been reported by mountaineers, a strong smell of sulfur in more extensive areas than usual. They also reported new cracks in the glacier near the summit.


Regarding the report published on November 28, when an increase in seismic activity was indicated, there was a significant change in the activity of the volcano. The origin of this anomaly may originate from the hydrothermal system but is more likely to have a magmatic origin due to the characteristics of the earthquakes. At present, this agitation has been maintained without major change, acceleration or deceleration. In the absence of significant changes in monitoring parameters, a volcano eruption in the medium term (weeks to several months) is possible, but unlikely. On the basis of eruptive monitoring data, the possible medium-term scenarios are:

A: very small phreatic eruption. This scenario could be a small eruptive column (≤2 km above the crater) with ballistic boulders falling near the crater (≤1 km) and a volcanic ash drop as a function of wind direction and speed ( Figure 6). Phreatic eruptions are frequent on volcanoes covered with ice like the Cayambe and are unpredictable by nature. Examples of similar eruptions of size and dynamics in Ecuador are those of Guagua Pichincha in 1981 or 1993. At the time of writing, the occurrence of a medium-term scenario is possible but unpredictable.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 6: Scenario of a very small phreatic eruption.

B: Small magmatic eruption. This scenario could form a slightly larger eruption column (up to 5 km) with limited fall on top of the volcano (≤ 5 km range) of ballistic blocks. Ash falls (and lapilli) could reach populated areas of Cayambe, Ayora, Olmedo and Pesillo depending on the wind direction and speed. It could also form small lahars in the western gullies of the volcano and moderated by eastern drainages. In this scenario, the formation of a new lava dome or lava flow, probably to the North or East is possible. Fiery clouds (pyroclastic flows) are also probably possible to the north or east. Examples of similar eruptions of size and dynamics in Ecuador are those of Cotopaxi (August-November 2015, low threshold) or Tungurahua (July 2013, February-April 2014, high threshold). At the time of writing, the occurrence of such a scenario in the medium term is unlikely if there is no change in the monitoring parameters.

Informe Especial Cayambe N. 4 - 2016

Figure 7: Scenario of a small magmatic eruption.

There are other larger eruptive scenarios for the Cayambe, but on the basis of monitoring results, at the time of this report these are considered very unlikely. Scenarios and their probability may change rapidly depending on the activity of the volcano and will be reassessed periodically.

The Institute of Geophysics monitors the Cayambe and will constantly report any changes in monitoring parameters.

Source : IGEPN

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