September 26 , 2016. EN. Bromo , Popocatepetl , Tungurahua .

Home / blog georges Vitton / September 26 , 2016. EN. Bromo , Popocatepetl , Tungurahua .

September 26 , 2016. EN. Bromo , Popocatepetl , Tungurahua .

September 26 , 2016.


Bromo , Indonesia :

During the period from 1 to 25 September, tremor type of events were recorded extensively with fluctuation in their maximum amplitude between 0.5 and 23 mm (dominant 1-3 mm). Earthquakes of emission , weak volcanic earthquakes type VB, and deep volcanic earthquakes (VA) were also recorded. Since September 24, 2016, have significantly increased  the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB), which reached the number of 63 events and constant tremor type of events until today 13:00.


Bromo deformation monitoring is done using the method EDM (electronic distance measurement) and inclinometer. EDM measurement method is performed using three permanent checkpoints G. Kursi, Bromo and Mount Batok.
The EDM measurement in the period from September 16 to 24, 2016 and primarily on data from the last 3 days, showed a tendency to inflation. The measurements with the inclinometer (600 meters from the active crater) can not be performed from September 18, 2016, as most of the support elements of the inclinometer tool were lost so that the measure can not be made.

Flow measurements of SO2 gas from Mount Bromo designed to measure gas concentrations of SO2 (sulfur dioxide oxide / sulfur) in the smoke emission / eruption of Mount Bromo, which began on July 17, 2016. In the period from 7 to 24 September 2016, the flow of SO2 tends to fluctuate.

Potential hazards
The potential of magmatic eruption continues and can still occur, which may be accompanied by the spread of volcanic material eruption in the form of heavy falls of ash and incandescent rocks emission from and around the crater, within 2.5 km from the center of the eruption.



Seismic activity, which is dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes , tremor vibrations, and deformation, which showed inflation.
In the period from September 2016, rumbling in the crater of Bromo, followed by thick smoke out of the crater, with a height of 50 to 900 m, and a faint glow in the crater were observed.

The threat of a magmatic eruption as ash and incandescent material issue can occur up to a radius of 2.5 km.
Based on visual observation data and analysis of seismic data, and the potential danger of eruption, the activity level of G.Bromo is raised from Level II (Waspada) to Level III (Siaga) in dated September 26, 2016 at 18:00.

The level of activity of G. Bromo will be raised / lowered if an increase / decrease in his activity is recorded by the experts of the Center for Volcanology and Geological, risk mitigation.


Source : VSI

Photos : Oystein Lund Andersen., G Vitton.



Popocatepetl , Mexico :

September 25 11:00 h (September 25, 16:00 GMT)

In the last 24 hours the seismic records of the surveillance system at Popocatépetl volcano registered 175 low-intensity exhalations and one explosion. Because to the cloudy conditions in the area it was not possible to notice some kind of emission.
On the other hand, two volcanotectonic events took place, yesterday at 16:53 magnitude 1.2 and today at 04:03 with a magnitude of 1.5

There were also recorded 30 minutes of low-amplitude tremor.



During the night was observed slight glow over the crater and a continuous emission of steam and gas .

At the time of this report there is no visibility to the crater, however, this morning the continuous emission of water vapor and blueish gases was observed being dispersed to the northwest .
Other monitoring parameters remain unchanged.

CENAPRED emphasizes that people SHOULD NOT go near the volcano, especially near the crater, due to the hazard caused by ballistic fragments .

This type of activity is included within the scenarios Volcanic Traffic Light Yellow Phase 2.

Source : Cenapred

Photo : Luis Garcia


Tungurahua , Ecuador :

 Increased seismic activity of the volcano and analysis of immediate reactivation in the short term (next few days to hours)

As mentioned in the Special Report No. 7 of 12 September 2016, a net increase in the number of earthquakes LP, and the appearance of small episodes of tremors on 16th was noted. On September 18 was observed a swarm of 24 LP between 4:08 and 4:24 (local time).
Since September 24 at 14:00 (local time), there was a further increase of the internal seismic activity of the volcano, in the number of LP type earthquakes and tremors episodes in the areas near the crater.

Based on these clear warning signs and outlined in Special Report No. 7, it is estimated that reactivation of Tungurahua in an immediate short term (next few days to hours) is possible and two potential eruptive scenarios are defined again:

1) a quick recovery, Vulcanian with high eruption column and pyroclastic flows; corresponding to the most likely scenario,

2) a gradual recovery, strombolian style, with explosions and ash falls mostly moderate.

From 14:00 (TL) yesterday (24 September), there has been an increase in the internal seismic activity of the volcano at this date counting 97 events long period (LP) and 2 tremors (TRE).


Informe Especial Tungurahua N. 8 - 2016

Figure 1: Increased seismic activity to retu Station located at the top of the volcano. Red squares show the events LPs and several episodes of tremor on 24 and 25 September 2016.

He was not seen great changes in the last days to the daily maximum SO2 emissions on the number of valid measures. Both indicators are at the basic level and could indicate that the channel is closed after the eruption of February-March 2016.


Informe Especial Tungurahua N. 8 - 2016

Figure 2: SO2 emission. daily average measured by the DOAS network of Tungurahua.

Visual observations:
In recent days, the visual observation conditions were variable. When the volcano remained clear, it was not observed surface activity (Figure 3). In recent days because of the cloud cover in the area, surface observations were not possible, nor the reports by the network of Supervisors of the volcano surface activity. In addition, there have been sporadic rainfall in the upper parts of the volcano.


Informe Especial Tungurahua N. 8 - 2016

The low outgassing may indicate a duct blockage that prevents the free passage of magmatic gases. Given the strong increase in the last days of seismic activity is considered that a reactivation of short-term (immediate coming days, hours) is possible.

Eruptive scenarios:
the scenarios proposed in Report No. 7 that could occur from the immediate short term (the next days to hours) are:

    1) rapid reactivation. During this stage of vulcanian style at the beginning of the eruptive phase or after a few days, it could happen fast conduit opening with moderate explosions in general (eg, May 2010, July 2013, April 2014). This scenario could be an eruption column large (up to 10 km above the crater) and pyroclastic flows that could descend the gorge to reach the foot of the volcano. The falls of ash and debris associated with this type of high eruption column are more likely to affect distant areas of the volcano with varying directions due to the wind direction at this point. Ballistic emissions (blocks and volcanic bombs) associated with explosions could reach a distance of 5 km from the crater. In this scenario, small lava flows could drop by the Northwest side with a range of less than 4 km. Secondary lahars could be generated due to the remobilization of eruptive material by rain and could cut the BañosPenipe road. Depending on the amount of accumulated material in the streams and the intensity / duration of rain, these lahars could be low to moderate. This eruptive scenario is most likely, due to the absence of gas emission, which would indicate a closed conduit.



   2) gradual reactivation. In this scenario Strombolian style, which can last from weeks to months, it could be observed small to moderate explosions, lava fountains and columns of ash below 6 km above the crater (eg. April- May 2011, March 2013, April 2015). The main phenomenon is the ash fall, moderate to high, affecting mainly the west of the volcano (unless a change in wind direction is observed). Ballistic projections (blocks and volcanic bombs) and small pyroclastic flows could reach a distance of 2.5 km from the crater. Small lahars secondary could be due to the remobilization of eruptive material by rain and could cut the Baños-Penipe road.

It is important to note that volcanic eruptions are unpredictable by nature and activity of the volcano could also return to normal without eruption.
These settings can be changed according to changes in the activity of the volcano and in the data analysis of instrumental and visual surveillance. The IGEPN maintains constant vigilance in the Terras center (Quito) and the Observatory of the Tungurahua volcano.

The Geophysical Institute reported the matter to the local, regional and national and is in permanent contact with them, performing the appropriate measures to maintain the safety of people in areas of impact in case of a major eruption. The IGEPN has staff working in Quito / IGEPN 24/24, 7 days a week, as well as in the observatory of the Tungurahua volcano, located 13 km north the crater of the Tungurahua Volcano.

Source : IGEPN

Photos : IGEPN, Patrick Taschler.

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